Student or Learner
Particular concern is devoted throughout the country to the training and retaining of the unemployed, particularly of those who have been out of work for extended periods. Yet such provision has been criticized for not matching the real requirements of the labor market, and thus for ........ simply as a way of keeping the jobless occupied.
2) being used
3) having used
4) having been used
When facing such tests, I reach an impasse. Frankly speaking, I cannot choose between No.2 and No.4