"Is needed" is not present perfect; that would be "has needed". "Must be analyzed" is also present tense, passive.
"Has been collected" is also passive, but in this case, it's present perfect, but the main clause is "a method of storing the carbon [...] must also be analyzed." They could have written "after it is collected", but their choice is legitimate.
While it's true that a method of storing carbon "must be analysed" (according to the writers), there's no event mentioned before which such storage "must have been analysed".
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