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    Present Perfect in one particular sentence

    Can somebody explain me why in this following sentence Present Perfect is used.

    But by this time Kafka has begun to consider The Metamorphosis more and more an interruption of the writing of the novel that was to become Amerika.

    Author yet speaks about the event which occured in tha past, the year 1912, and has no impact up to present. Could it be from the reason that before this sentence it is quoted a passage from Kafka´s diary?

  1. Barb_D's Avatar
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    Re: Present Perfect in one particular sentence

    Is this in context of a longer passage told in "the historical present"? We can make stories more vivid by using the present but when we do, we still need a way to refer events further in the past that affect the time being described in the present. We can use the present perfect for this.
    I'm not a teacher, but I write for a living. Please don't ask me about 2nd conditionals, but I'm a safe bet for what reads well in (American) English.

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