Yes, it does change the meaning. If they made the cards too thin and sharp, they could cut people's fingers. That would be an issue of credit card safety. This example only seems silly if you have credit card security in mind as a context already and are asking whether "security" is a better word in the context of security.
What do you mean by a "general collocation"? Do you mean using "credit card security" for other things associated with credit cards apart from security?