I guess that the first 3 sentences do have the same meaning. But when you use "every one of us" and "each of us" it sounds more powerful, it is stronger so it has more impact. But on the whole, they mean the same.
The same when it comes to your second selection of sentences, although that I'm not familiar with the verb "to fact". I can't say that I have heard it before, but I'm not saying that it is wrong It's probably lack of knowledge
Each set of three has the same implication. But the focus is slightly different in each. "All" focuses on the group ("us") as a whole. "Each" and "every" focus on the individual members of the group. (Perhaps "every" has more of a sense of focusing "one by one".)
Thank you Mr. Pedantic,
'That may happen to all of us.'
a-It is possible for each of us to have that happen to them.
(Here we aren't necessarily talking about one single event that would affect us all at the same time)
b-It is possible for that to happen to all of us together and at the same time.
To me, it seems that 'all' and 'every one ' are ambiguous in these sentences, because they could mean 'each one of us seperately and not all of us together as a group', and they could also mean 'all of us together'.
-John had an accident.
-That may happen to all of us. (seperately, singly)
-There's a storm and our boat may sink.
-My God. All of us/every one us may die. (together)
[I am not sure one can say 'each' here]
Yes, you're right: "That may happen to all of us" is ambiguous. (Though context will make it clear, if it means one event which may affect each member of the group simultaneously!)
As for "All of us/every one of us may die", I'd agree: "each of us may die", though possible, would tend to suggest separate individual deaths, rather than simultaneous deaths. (Though who knows what we'd say, in such a situation – probably grammar would be the last thing on our minds.)