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    #1

    What does Alex mean by "PP?"

    In this excellent "modals review article [https://www.usingenglish.com/files/p...als-review.pdf], on p. 4 Alex writes the following (shown below). In it, I'm not positive what he means by "PP". Does he mean probability/ possibility, or present participle, or past participle, or...? Help - thanks!

    The past forms are:
    must – must have + PP/ had to
    can – could
    can’t – couldn’t/ can’t have + PP
    could – could have + PP
    will – would
    would – would have + PP
    might – might have + PP
    may – may have + PP
    should – should have + PP

    When there are two past forms, it is because they have different meanings, e.g. “couldn’t”
    for ability and “can’t + have + PP” for probability/ possibility

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    #2

    Re: What does Alex mean by "PP?"

    Welcome to the forum, stddha.

    It's the normal abbreviation of 'past participle'.

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