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  1. nininaz's Avatar
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      • Italy
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    • Join Date: Jul 2013
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    #1

    Because they have heard horrible things, the settlers were scared

    Hello All,
    I have two adverb clauses which have different tense.

    1- "Because they have heard horrible things, the settlers were scared."

    2-"Because they had heard horrible things, the settlers were scared."
    Then, I want to reduced them as the follow to function as the participle clause :

    Two sentences would be as : "Having heard horrible things, the settlers were scared"
    So what make me confused about it is how can we know the main sentence was defined in the present perfect or past perfect ?!\

    Thanks so much.


  2. Grumpy's Avatar
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    #2

    Re: Because they have heard horrible things, the settlers were scared

    Quote Originally Posted by nininaz View Post
    Hello All,
    I have two adverb clauses which have different tense.

    1- "Because they have heard horrible things, the settlers
    were scared."
    2-"Because they had heard horrible things, the settlers were scared."
    Then, I want to reduced them as the follow to function as the participle clause :

    Two sentences would be as : "Having heard horrible things, the settlers were scared"
    So what make me confused about it is how can we know the main sentence was defined in the present perfect or past perfect ?!\

    Thanks so much.

    The first sentence is incorrect. It must be written as "...are scared". Thus, it would be rearranged to read "Having heard horrible things, the settlers are scared".
    Also, "I want to reduce them as the follow" is incorrect. Try "I want to rearrange them as follows".
    I'm not a teacher of English, but I have spoken it for (almost) all of my life....

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