# Thread: "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

1. ## "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

Hello All,
Which of the following sentences are the reduction form of the bold sentence?!
"The London underground is the oldest system because it was opened in 1863."
"The London underground is the oldest system because it had opened in 1863."
"The London underground is the oldest system because it has opened in 1863."

"The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."
Source:

2. ## Re: "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

I would say 'it opened in 1863'.

Not a teacher.

3. ## Re: "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

Originally Posted by Matthew Wai
I would say 'it opened in 1863'.

Not a teacher.
Thanks so much.I have some questions:

1- Can railway systems opened by itself ? used active instead of passive form?!
2- If we use "The London underground is the oldest system because it opened in 1863." so can we reduced it to "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863. "?
3- I think when wen want to use having as the reduction, we have to have present or past perfect in our dependent clause. Am I wrong?!

4. ## Re: "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

Originally Posted by nininaz
1- Can railway systems opened by itself ? used active instead of passive form?!
See http://www.macmillandictionary.com/d...ritish/open_51 Definition#5

Not a teacher.

5. ## Re: "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

Originally Posted by Matthew Wai
Thanks.
How about the following questions:
2- If we use "The London underground is the oldest system because it opened in 1863." so can we reduced it to "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863. "?
3- I think when wen want to use having as the reduction, we have to have present or past perfect in our dependent clause. Am I wrong?!

6. ## Re: "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

I think we can use 'having + past participle' as long as it happened at an earlier time.
For example, 'Having finished the homework, he went to bed.'

Not a teacher.

7. ## Re: "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

***** NOT A TEACHER *****

Nininaz:

I have found in Michael Swan's highly respected book some sentences that may interest you:

1, Used economically, one tin will last for six weeks. = If it is used ...

2. Having failed my medical exams, I took up teaching. = As I had failed ...

3. Putting down my newspaper, I walked over to the window. = After I had put down my newspaper, ...

4. It rained for two weeks on end, completely ruining our holiday. = ...so that it completely ruined our holiday.

I have no comments.

I shall let you draw your own conclusions.

!00% credit to Mr. Swan's Practical English Usage (second edition published in 1995), entry # 406.3 on pages 405-406. It was published by the Oxford University Press. Copyrighted by Mr. Swan in 1980 and 1995.

8. ## Re: "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

Originally Posted by TheParser
Putting down my newspaper, I walked over to the window. = After I had put down my newspaper, ...
Walking down the street, I saw a pretty woman. = When I was walking down the street, ...

Am I right or wrong?
Not a teacher.

9. ## Re: "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

Originally Posted by TheParser
***** NOT A TEACHER *****

Nininaz:

I have found in Michael Swan's highly respected book some sentences that may interest you:

1, Used economically, one tin will last for six weeks. = If it is used ...

2. Having failed my medical exams, I took up teaching. = As I had failed ...

3. Putting down my newspaper, I walked over to the window. = After I had put down my newspaper, ...

4. It rained for two weeks on end, completely ruining our holiday. = ...so that it completely ruined our holiday.

I have no comments.

I shall let you draw your own conclusions.

!00% credit to Mr. Swan's Practical English Usage (second edition published in 1995), entry # 406.3 on pages 405-406. It was published by the Oxford University Press. Copyrighted by Mr. Swan in 1980 and 1995.
Thanks for your answer. I have that great book as well.
I just want to know what is the full sentence of the following reduction ?!
"The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

10. ## Re: "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

The London underground is the oldest system, it opened in 1863.

Not a teacher.

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