Page 1 of 2 1 2 LastLast
Results 1 to 10 of 17
  1. nininaz's Avatar
    • Member Info
      • Native Language:
      • Italian
      • Home Country:
      • Italy
      • Current Location:
      • Italy

    • Join Date: Jul 2013
    • Posts: 584
    #1

    Question "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

    Hello All,
    Which of the following sentences are the reduction form of the bold sentence?!
    "The London underground is the oldest system because it was opened in 1863."
    "The London underground is the oldest system because it had opened in 1863."
    "The London underground is the oldest system because it has opened in 1863."

    "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."
    Source:
    http://ielts-simon.com/ielts-help-and-english-pr/2011/03/ielts-writing-task-1-table-essay.html
    Last edited by nininaz; 10-Dec-2014 at 13:31.

  2. Matthew Wai's Avatar
    • Member Info
      • Native Language:
      • Chinese
      • Home Country:
      • China
      • Current Location:
      • Hong Kong

    • Join Date: Nov 2013
    • Posts: 7,841
    #2

    Re: "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

    I would say 'it opened in 1863'.

    Not a teacher.

  3. nininaz's Avatar
    • Member Info
      • Native Language:
      • Italian
      • Home Country:
      • Italy
      • Current Location:
      • Italy

    • Join Date: Jul 2013
    • Posts: 584
    #3

    Re: "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

    Quote Originally Posted by Matthew Wai View Post
    I would say 'it opened in 1863'.

    Not a teacher.
    Thanks so much.I have some questions:

    1- Can railway systems opened by itself ? used active instead of passive form?!
    2- If we use "The London underground is the oldest system because it opened in 1863." so can we reduced it to "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863. "?
    3- I think when wen want to use having as the reduction, we have to have present or past perfect in our dependent clause. Am I wrong?!
    Last edited by nininaz; 10-Dec-2014 at 13:11.

  4. Matthew Wai's Avatar
    • Member Info
      • Native Language:
      • Chinese
      • Home Country:
      • China
      • Current Location:
      • Hong Kong

    • Join Date: Nov 2013
    • Posts: 7,841
    #4

    Re: "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

    Quote Originally Posted by nininaz View Post
    1- Can railway systems opened by itself ? used active instead of passive form?!
    See http://www.macmillandictionary.com/d...ritish/open_51 Definition#5

    Not a teacher.

  5. nininaz's Avatar
    • Member Info
      • Native Language:
      • Italian
      • Home Country:
      • Italy
      • Current Location:
      • Italy

    • Join Date: Jul 2013
    • Posts: 584
    #5

    Re: "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

    Quote Originally Posted by Matthew Wai View Post
    Thanks.
    How about the following questions:
    2- If we use "The London underground is the oldest system because it opened in 1863." so can we reduced it to "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863. "?
    3- I think when wen want to use having as the reduction, we have to have present or past perfect in our dependent clause. Am I wrong?!
    Last edited by Rover_KE; 10-Dec-2014 at 13:20. Reason: Deleting 12 superfluous letter 's's.

  6. Matthew Wai's Avatar
    • Member Info
      • Native Language:
      • Chinese
      • Home Country:
      • China
      • Current Location:
      • Hong Kong

    • Join Date: Nov 2013
    • Posts: 7,841
    #6

    Re: "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

    I think we can use 'having + past participle' as long as it happened at an earlier time.
    For example, 'Having finished the homework, he went to bed.'

    Not a teacher.

    • Member Info
      • Native Language:
      • English
      • Home Country:
      • United States
      • Current Location:
      • United States

    • Join Date: Dec 2009
    • Posts: 6,332
    #7

    Re: "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

    ***** NOT A TEACHER *****

    Nininaz:

    I have found in Michael Swan's highly respected book some sentences that may interest you:

    1, Used economically, one tin will last for six weeks. = If it is used ...

    2. Having failed my medical exams, I took up teaching. = As I had failed ...

    3. Putting down my newspaper, I walked over to the window. = After I had put down my newspaper, ...

    4. It rained for two weeks on end, completely ruining our holiday. = ...so that it completely ruined our holiday.

    I have no comments.

    I shall let you draw your own conclusions.


    !00% credit to Mr. Swan's Practical English Usage (second edition published in 1995), entry # 406.3 on pages 405-406. It was published by the Oxford University Press. Copyrighted by Mr. Swan in 1980 and 1995.

  7. Matthew Wai's Avatar
    • Member Info
      • Native Language:
      • Chinese
      • Home Country:
      • China
      • Current Location:
      • Hong Kong

    • Join Date: Nov 2013
    • Posts: 7,841
    #8

    Re: "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

    Quote Originally Posted by TheParser View Post
    Putting down my newspaper, I walked over to the window. = After I had put down my newspaper, ...
    Walking down the street, I saw a pretty woman. = When I was walking down the street, ...

    Am I right or wrong?
    Not a teacher.

  8. nininaz's Avatar
    • Member Info
      • Native Language:
      • Italian
      • Home Country:
      • Italy
      • Current Location:
      • Italy

    • Join Date: Jul 2013
    • Posts: 584
    #9

    Re: "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

    Quote Originally Posted by TheParser View Post
    ***** NOT A TEACHER *****

    Nininaz:

    I have found in Michael Swan's highly respected book some sentences that may interest you:

    1, Used economically, one tin will last for six weeks. = If it is used ...

    2. Having failed my medical exams, I took up teaching. = As I had failed ...

    3. Putting down my newspaper, I walked over to the window. = After I had put down my newspaper, ...

    4. It rained for two weeks on end, completely ruining our holiday. = ...so that it completely ruined our holiday.

    I have no comments.

    I shall let you draw your own conclusions.


    !00% credit to Mr. Swan's Practical English Usage (second edition published in 1995), entry # 406.3 on pages 405-406. It was published by the Oxford University Press. Copyrighted by Mr. Swan in 1980 and 1995.
    Thanks for your answer. I have that great book as well.
    I just want to know what is the full sentence of the following reduction ?!
    "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

  9. Matthew Wai's Avatar
    • Member Info
      • Native Language:
      • Chinese
      • Home Country:
      • China
      • Current Location:
      • Hong Kong

    • Join Date: Nov 2013
    • Posts: 7,841
    #10

    Re: "The London underground is the oldest system, having opened in 1863."

    The London underground is the oldest system, it opened in 1863.

    Not a teacher.

Page 1 of 2 1 2 LastLast

Similar Threads

  1. What do we call this kind of nouns "London Games"?
    By Odessa Dawn in forum Ask a Teacher
    Replies: 7
    Last Post: 12-Aug-2012, 12:21
  2. Question about "Keep the window open/opened"
    By okta614 in forum Ask a Teacher
    Replies: 2
    Last Post: 25-Jun-2012, 07:57
  3. Have I been making a big mistake using "oldest"
    By alcush in forum Ask a Teacher
    Replies: 4
    Last Post: 19-Sep-2011, 06:19
  4. Replies: 3
    Last Post: 31-Oct-2008, 07:05
  5. Corporate English- London Underground
    By Tdol in forum UsingEnglish.com Content
    Replies: 0
    Last Post: 19-Jul-2004, 09:06

Bookmarks

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •