***** NOT A TEACHER *****
1. The word "supernumerary" is certainly not in my active vocabulary (that is to say, that is a "big" word that I never use in speech or writing).
2. Yes, you are correct: I have read that in older English, the "do" was often used.
I believe that I am correct in saying that today the "do" is used for emphasis -- especially if someone does not believe you.
Mother: You told me that your boyfriend would go home at 7 p.m. But I heard some noise in the living room at 8 p.m.
Daughter: Mom, he did go home at 7 p.m. You heard some noise because I was cleaning the living room and kitchen in order to surprise you.
Mother: Oh, I see. I apologize for being so suspicious. But a mother can never be too careful.
Mona: I understand 8 languages.
James: Yeah, right! Do you think that I'm an idiot?
Mona: I do understand 8 languages. I just happen to be one of those talented people who have an ear for languages. Besides, my parents traveled around the world on business, so I quickly picked up languages.
James: I apologize. I have to remember that not everyone is so stupid as I am.
Ralph: I'm going to the White House to visit my girlfriend.
James: The White House? The one where the president lives?
Ralph: Yes, dude.
James: Stop lying.
Ralph: I'm not lying. She does work there. Senator Smith used his influence to get her a job there.
James: I apologize.
Ralph: I would hope so!
Interested in Language