I am not a teacher.
In the words 'ownership', 'township' and leadership' it doesn't mean anything in itself, but it is used to form nouns of various sorts. See here for more details.
It has Germanic origins, (so you won't find a real equivalent in French) and exists in modern Dutch as the suffix 'schap' with the same usage as in English.
'Traineship' isn't a word.
Student or Learner