First of all, the beginning should be "Time goes fast" or "Times go fast".
For me, the main clause is "Time goes fast for one (who has a sense of beauty) to receive with wonder anything one can catch." I changed "you" to "one" because one must continue to use "one" when one starts with "one". "Who has a sense of beauty" is a relative clause modifying "one". The other clause is adverbial.
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