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    #1

    Please review my exercise essay

    Hello folks,

    in preparation for my english exam i wrote the essay below. I put a lot of time and effort in writing and reviewing the text. Nevertheless I am sure that my essay can still be improved and corrections can be made. I would really appreciate if someone could review my essay and point out the flaws. Thank you in advance for your time and effort

    How Artificial Intelligence Will Affect Our Lives And The Ways Humans Interact With Computers
    About 60 years ago, a conference on the campus of Dartmouth College laid the foundation for the research field of artificial intelligence. In 1956 John McCarty coined the term Artificial intelligence and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs" [1]. Over the years, artificial intelligence has been the subject of exceptional anticipation but has also suffered tremendous setbacks. Today, AI has obtained a substantial role in science and economy. Although AI appears in our everyday live we do not always recognize computers as being intelligent. Therefore, we might miss the opportunity to take advantage of their potential. The following will present an overview of different areas in which artificial intelligence already appears today and which influence it might have in the future.

    Game playing was one of the first research fields in artificial intelligence. Being able to play a game with a non-player character (NPC) has become a central feature in computer games. A NPC is a player that is controlled by a computer through artificial intelligence. On the one hand, non-player characters are introduced into computer games to form a realistic and authentic environment for the human player. An example of this is the game Grand Theft Auto. Non-player characters are used in this game to simulate citizens driving cars or perform everyday activities. On the other hand non-player characters can be used as artificial opponents. With the help of artificial intelligence, computer can be programmed to be capable of playing a game autonomously without human guidance. A case in point of this would be a chess engine capable of playing chess on its own. Artificial intelligence of this kind even has the potential to surpass human capabilities. IBM demonstrated this with the chess engine Deep Blue. The chess computer defeated the former world chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1997 [2]. Having an artificial opponent can be advantageous for world class players to have a practice partner at a comparable level or even for casual players to have a partner to play with. Artificial intelligence research can also profit from being implemented in computer games. Computer games give access to benchmarks and can accurately imitate actual problems. Therefore the application of artificial intelligence is beneficial for both areas. AI is necessary to make computer games more challenging and entertaining. Vice versa, computer games offer a rich environment for research on artificial intelligence.

    Another area where artificial intelligence plays an increasing role is traffic safety and traffic management. The automotive sector is one field where artificial intelligence is applied to improve safety. Intelligent computer systems are introduced in vehicles to detect dangerous situations and alert the driver if a potential risk is perceived. In cases of extreme danger, an intelligent system could interfere and handle the situation completely on its own. A practical example of this would be a brake assistant combined with person recognition to detect, for example a child stepping in front of a car. But not only can AI enhance the safety in traffic. Intelligent computers can also support the efficient management of traffic. A field of application for traffic management is the air transport, one of the most systematic transport services, which could barely survive in the absence of artificial intelligence. The reason why air traffic depend on artificial intelligence lies in the complexity and quantity of the task that need to be performed. Human air traffic controllers maintain the safe flow of air traffic with a variety of subsystems: “they access databases of textual information, examine and interact with radar displays, receive and transmit flight information and communicate with the pilots and other controllers over audio link” [3]. Technologies of artificial intelligence can automate part of those tasks. This automation reduces the complexity and the overall workload for the human air traffic controller. In conclusion, artificial intelligence is not only applied to increase the safety of our everyday traffic but also ensures efficient management of traffic in the future.

    Since computer systems become ubiquitous in our daily live, the intuitive interaction between humans and computers is of growing importance. This statement is reflected by the development of the ways, humans interact with computers over the past 50 years. First, computer users typed commands into a command line via a computer keyboard. Later, users interacted with a computer by using a computer mouse in combination with a keyboard. Nowadays, with the advancement of mobile computing devices such as smartphones or tablet computers, gesture and touch-based interaction becomes increasingly commonplace. In the future, advanced kinds of interaction such as natural language processing (NLP) could replace all the aforementioned ways of human computer interaction. NLP refers to methods in the research field of artificial intelligence. The main objective of a natural language processing program is to understand input in form of natural, human language like English [4]. Technologies of artificial intelligence are applied to derive meaning from natural language. Examples for those technologies are machine learning, data mining or artificial neuronal networks. Not only can AI enhance the ways humans interact with computers but it can also assistance disabled people to work with computers. This shows that in order to enable new forms of communication between human and computers, artificial intelligence is vital.

    In medicine, Computer Aided Diagnosis can assistance the physicians to interpret medical images. The analysis of medical scan data is one of the most important tasks in health care in order to diagnose various diseases. Currently, specialized physicians perform the interpretation of computer tomography or magnetic resonance scan images manually [5]. However, with the advancement of the technologies in medical image processing technologies, a new problem arises: Modern medical scanners are capable to produce a great number of images. A Computer Tomography Scanner can take between 300 and 500 images in a routine scan. A Magnetic Resonance scanner even takes 1500 to 2000 images. The interpretation of this large quantity of scans represents an extensive amount of work for the physician. In addition, the analysis of medical scan data can be challenging, even for a specialist [6]. Technologies of artificial intelligence like automatic segmentation and machine learning can be used, to provide computerized aid to the doctors. “Computer Aided Diagnosis can serve as a second opinion in the detection of abnormalities, quantification of disease progress and different diagnosis of lesions” [7]. An intelligent computer system could, for example have access to a database of archived scan data. The system could perform a search operation with the current image data to look for similar cases and their diagnosis in the past. In combination with the experience of the physician the interpretation time of medical images can be decreased and the diagnostic precision can be improved. In conclusion, artificial intelligence can be utilized in medical image interpretation to enhance the manual process of image analysis.

    In summary, there exist numerous areas in which artificial intelligence already plays a significant role in our daily lives. Advanced forms of human computer interaction, enhanced safety in traffic, assistance in medical image analysis and realistic computer games are only few of the areas in which AI is vital. With further advancement of the technologies and the algorithms used in the research field of artificial intelligence, it can be expected that the role of AI increases significantly in the future. Although AI seems to be promising, humanity must pay special attention on that topic. Stephen Hawking, Elon Musk or Bill Gates recently expressed their concerns about AI, and that humanity should be careful with intelligent computer systems. Hawking stated in an interview with BBC “The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race.” [8].

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    #2

    Re: Please review my exercise essay

    How Artificial Intelligence Will Affect Our Lives And The Ways Humans Interact With Computers

    About 60 years ago, a conference on the campus of Dartmouth College laid the foundation for the research into the field of artificial intelligence. In 1956, John McCarty coined the term "artificial intelligence" and defined it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs" [1]. Over the years, artificial intelligence has not only been the subject of exceptional anticipation but has also suffered tremendous setbacks. Today, AI has obtained played a substantial role in science and economy. Although AI appears in our everyday lives we do not always recognize computers as being intelligent. Therefore, we might miss the opportunity to take advantage of their potential. The following will present an overview of different areas in which artificial intelligence already appears today and upon which influence it might have in the future.

    Game playing was one of the first research fields in artificial intelligence. Being able to play a game with a non-player character (NPC) has become a central feature in computer games. A NPC is a player that is controlled by a computer through artificial intelligence. On the one hand, non-player characters are introduced into computer games to form a realistic and authentic environment for the human player. An example of this is the game Grand Theft Auto. Non-player characters are used in this game to simulate citizens driving cars or perform everyday activities. On the other hand, the non-player characters can be used as artificial opponents. With the help of artificial intelligence, computer can be programmed to be capable of playing a game autonomously without human guidance. A case in point of this would be a chess engine capable of playing chess on its own. Artificial intelligence of this kind even has the potential to surpass human capabilities. IBM demonstrated this with the chess engine, Deep Blue. The chess computer defeated the former world chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1997 [2]. Having an artificial opponent can be advantageous for world class players to have a practice partner at a comparable level or even for casual players to have a partner to play with. Artificial intelligence research can also profit from being implemented in computer games. Computer games give access tobenchmarks and can accurately imitate simulate actual problems. Therefore the application of artificial intelligence is beneficial for both areas. AI is necessary to make computer games more challenging and entertaining. Vice versa, computer games offer a rich environment for research on artificial intelligence.

    Another area where artificial intelligence plays an increasing role is traffic safety and traffic management. The automotive sector is one field where artificial intelligence is applied to improve safety. Intelligent computer systems are introduced in vehicles to detect dangerous situations and alert the driver if a potential risk is perceived. In cases of extreme danger, an intelligent system could interfere and handle the situation completely on its own. A practical example of this would be a brake assistant combined with person recognition to detect, for example a child stepping in front of a car. But not only can AI enhance the safety in traffic(.), intelligent computers can also support the efficient management of traffic. A field of application for traffic management is the air transport, one of the most systematic transport services, which could barely survive in the absence of artificial intelligence. The reason why air traffic depends on artificial intelligence lies in the complexity and quantity of the task that need to be performed. Human air traffic controllers maintain the safe flow of air traffic with a variety of subsystems: “they access databases of textual information, examine and interact with radar displays, receive and transmit flight information and communicate with the pilots and other controllers over audio link” [3]. Technologies of artificial intelligence can automate part of those tasks. This automation reduces the complexity and the overall workload for the human air traffic controller. In conclusion, artificial intelligence is not only applied to increase the safety of our everyday traffic but also ensures efficient management of traffic in the future.

    Since computer systems become ubiquitous in our daily lives, the intuitive interaction between humans and computers is of growing importance. This statement is reflected by the development of the ways(,) humans interact with computers over the past 50 years. First, computer users typed commands into a command line via a computer keyboard. Later, users interacted with a computer by using a computer mouse in combination with a keyboard. Nowadays, with the advancement of mobile computing devices such as smartphones or tablet computers, gesture and touch-based interaction becomes increasingly commonplace. In the future, advanced kinds of interaction such as natural language processing (NLP) could replace all the aforementioned ways of human computer interaction. NLP refers to methods in the research field of artificial intelligence. The main objective of a natural language processing program is to understand input in form of natural, human language like English [4]. Technologies of artificial intelligence are applied to derive meaning from natural language. Examples for those technologies are machine learning, data mining or artificial neuronal networks. Not only can AI enhance the ways humans interact with computers but it can also assistance disabled people to work with computers. This shows that in order to enable new forms of communication between human and computers, artificial intelligence is vital.

    In medicine, Computer Aided Diagnosis can assistance the physicians to interpret medical images. The analysis of medical scan data is one of the most important tasks in healthcare in order to diagnose various diseases. Currently, specialized physicians perform the interpretation of computer tomography or magnetic resonance scan images manually [5]. However, with the advancement of the technologies in medical image processing technologies, a new problem arises: Modern medical scanners are capable to of producing a great number of images. A Computer Tomography Scanner can take between 300 and 500 images in a routine scan. A Magnetic Resonance scanner even takes 1500 to 2000 images. The interpretation of this large quantity of scans represents an extensive amount of work for the physician. In addition, the analysis of medical scan data can be challenging, even for a specialist [6]. Technologies of artificial intelligence like automatic segmentation and machine learning can be used, to provide computerized aid to the doctors. “Computer Aided Diagnosis can serve as a second opinion in the detection of abnormalities, quantification of disease progress and different diagnosis of lesions” [7]. An intelligent computer system could, for example, have access to a database of archived scan data. The system could perform a search operation with the current image data to look for similar cases and their diagnosis in the past. In combination with the experience of the physician the interpretation time of medical images can be decreased and the diagnostic precision can be improved. In conclusion, artificial intelligence can be utilized in medical image interpretation to enhance the manual process of image analysis.

    In summary, there exist numerous areas in which artificial intelligence already plays a significant role in our daily lives. Advanced forms of human computer interaction, enhanced safety in traffic, assistance in medical image analysis and realistic computer games are only few of the areas in which AI is vital. With further advancement of the technologies and the algorithms used in the research field of artificial intelligence, it can be expected that the role of AI increases significantly in the future. Although AI seems to be promising, humanity must pay special attention on that topic. Stephen Hawking, Elon Musk or Bill Gates recently expressed their concerns about AI, and that humanity should be careful with intelligent computer systems. Hawking stated in an interview with BBC: “The development of full artificial intelligence could spell the end of the human race.” [8].

    This is a well-written, informative and interesting article.
    I am not a teacher.

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