Student or Learner
how to make notes of long country names and city names in a news listening?
I would suggest that before listening to the news, you learn the names (in English) of the main cities and countries of the world. You can also invent your own shorthand for each one.
If I were listening to a news item in French, for instance, I would use "P" for "Paris", "L" for "Lyons", and "M" for "Marseilles".
The spelling of the names of cities and countries in English is often unpredictable. To learn them in advance is the only solution!