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    #1

    How should I understand the underlined sentence?

    How should I understand the underlined sentence? Thanks!

    Traditionally, reform strategies begin with policy makers and operate top down, so that by the time they permeate through to teachers in classrooms, the original policy aims are distorted or diffused, and practitioners feel minimal ownership. Elmore (1979-80) thus suggested that reform had more chance of maintaining its integrity if the process was reversed so that policy makers map back from the outcomes and classroom practices they want to see implemented, thinking through the implications for each set of agents at different levels up through the system. “Backward mapping”, for Elmore, is more likely to achieve fidelity to the original policy intention and to win ownership of the practitioners charged with implementation since they have contributed to the policy formation. It is, in this sense, a bottom-up approach.

    (See Chapter 4 "Leadership for 21st century learning in Singapore's high-performing schools" of a report titled "Leadership for 21st century learning" published by OECD in 2013. )


    (Last paragraph of p.110. Here is the link: http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset...406-en#page112)

  1. Eckaslike's Avatar
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    #2

    Re: How should I understand the underlined sentence?

    Quote Originally Posted by shwm View Post
    How should I understand the underlined sentence? Thanks!

    Traditionally, reform strategies begin with policy makers and operate top down, so that by the time they permeate through to teachers in classrooms, the original policy aims are distorted or diffused, and practitioners feel minimal ownership. Elmore (1979-80) thus suggested that reform had more chance of maintaining its integrity if the process was reversed so that policy makers map back from the outcomes and classroom practices they want to see implemented, thinking through the implications for each set of agents [of change] at different levels up through the system. “Backward mapping”, for Elmore, is more likely to achieve fidelity to the original policy intention and to win ownership of the practitioners charged with implementation since they have contributed to the policy formation. It is, in this sense, a bottom-up approach.

    To me it means, the reform strategies are the agents [of change] (i.e they bring about change). So policy makers need to think carefully about how their new strategies to introduce change will affect all levels of the system. They need to look from the bottom upwards to ensure that the effects of those changes will be what they expect, rather than just implementing policies at the top without realising the full implications of what might happen at other levels in the system.
    Last edited by Eckaslike; 20-Jul-2015 at 14:31. Reason: For clarity.

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    #3

    Re: How should I understand the underlined sentence?

    Quote Originally Posted by shwm View Post
    How should I understand the underlined sentence? Thanks!

    Traditionally, reform strategies begin with policy makers and operate top down, so that by the time they permeate through to teachers in classrooms, the original policy aims are distorted or diffused, and practitioners feel minimal ownership. Elmore (1979-80) thus suggested that reform had more chance of maintaining its integrity if the process was reversed so that policy makers map back from the outcomes and classroom practices they want to see implemented, thinking through the implications for each set of agents at different levels up through the system. “Backward mapping”, for Elmore, is more likely to achieve fidelity to the original policy intention and to win ownership of the practitioners charged with implementation since they have contributed to the policy formation. It is, in this sense, a bottom-up approach.

    (See Chapter 4 "Leadership for 21st century learning in Singapore's high-performing schools" of a report titled "Leadership for 21st century learning" published by OECD in 2013. )


    (Last paragraph of p.110. Here is the link: http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset...406-en#page112)
    The participial phrase refers to "policy makers". What it means is that the policy makers should think about the consequences (implications) of their decisions. Policy makers should think about how their decisions will affect each group of people (set of agents) at different levels in the education system.

    For example, teachers are one group of people (set of agents) who are affected by policy changes. If a policy changes, they have to change the way they teach.

    Administrators may be another group of people (set of agents) who are affected by policy changes. They have to change how they hire and train teachers. They have to change how they coordinate communication among teachers, students, parents, and others.

    The phrase means that policy makers (politicians or high-level education administrators) should think about how their ideas and policies will impact others below them.

    The passage as a whole seems to state that, historically, policy makers make decisions about education policy and then they require administrators, teachers, and others to follow their rules. Elmore is cited as an expert who disagrees with this approach, and counter-argues by saying that policy makers should instead make policies based on what successful teachers and local administrators are doing in their schools.

    That's the best explanation I can give on one cup of coffee.

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    #4

    Re: How should I understand the underlined sentence?

    Cs4english's explanation makes complete sense....perhaps I need a coffee too!
    Last edited by Eckaslike; 20-Jul-2015 at 16:22.

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    #5

    Re: How should I understand the underlined sentence?

    Your explanation is so clear and understandable. Absolutely I owe you a cup of coffee.

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    #6

    Re: How should I understand the underlined sentence?

    Agree. I also owe you a cup of coffee, maybe many cups of coffee, since you helped me for many times. Thank you so much!

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