Close, R A (1975.69-87 ), A reference grammar for students of English, London: Longman:
[...] the non-finite parts of the verb [...]:
The bare infinitive [...]
The infinitive with to
The -ing participle and gerund
The -ed participle
Quirk, Randolph; Greenbaum, Sidney; Leech, Geoffrey; and Svartik, Jan (1985.96-97), A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, Harlow: Longman:
Regular full verbs eg CALL, have four morphological forms. Irregular full verbs vary in this respect; a verb like SPEAK has five, whereas CUT has only three (note, however, that the primary verb BE has as many as eight forms.
- BASE FORM - call, want, speak, cut, win
- -S FORM - calls, wants, speaks, cuts, wins
- -ING FORM - calling, wanting, speaking, cutting, winning
- PAST FORM - called, wanted, spoke, cut, won
- -ED PARTICIPLE - called, wanted, spoke, cut, won.
These verb forms have different functions in finite and non-finite verb phrases. On this basis, the -s form and the past form are called FINITE, whereas the -ing participle and the -ed participle are called NONFINITE.
The BASE FORM [...] occurs as a NONFINITE form in
(i) the bare infinitive: He may call tonight.
(ii) The to-infinitive: We want her to call.
Greenbaum, Sidney in McArthur Tom (ed) (1992.702), The Oxford Companion to the English Language, Oxford: OUP:
NON-FINITE VERB, also non-finite verb. A form of the verb that does not display a distinction in tense, in contrast with finite verb. A non-finite verb is either an infinitive or a participle.
Chalker, Sylvia and Weiner,Edmund (1993.262), The Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar, 2nd edn, Oxford, OUP:
A non-finite clause is a clause whose verb is non-finite ( an infinitive, an -ing participle, or an -en participle.
Aarts , Jan and Aarts, Floor, A corpus-based study in verb complementation in Aarts, Bas and Meyer, Charles F (1995), The verb in contemporary English (1995.161-2), Cambridge: CUP:
Forms of the verb find:
Greenbaum, Sidney (1995.117) The Oxford English Grammar, Oxford: OUP:
Verbs have five form-types. [...]
- base - prepare, make, put, write
- -s - prepares, makes, puts, writes
- -ing participle - preparing, making, putting, writing
- past - prepared, made, put, written.
Retired English Teacher