Student or Learner
Hi, I have problem with two questions from the following reading. Although this is a long reading; I really need to help and will appreciate if you read it and help me. Bless you.
Picture-taking is a technique both for annexing the objective world and for expressing the singular self. Photographs depict objective realities that already exist, though only the camera can disclose them. And they depict an individual photographer‟s temperament, discovering itself through the camera‟s cropping of reality. That is, photography has two antithetical ideals: in the first, photography is about the world and the photographer is a mere observe who counts for little; but in the second, photography is the instrument of intrepid, questing subjectivity and the photographer is all.
These conflicting ideals arise from a fundamental uneasiness on the part of both photographers and viewers of photographs toward the aggressive component in “taking” a picture. Accordingly, the ideal of a photographer as observer is attractive because it implicitly denies that picture-taking is an aggressive act. The issue, of course, is not so clear-cut. What photographers do cannot be characterized as simply predatory or as simply, and essentially, benevolent. As a consequence, one ideal of picture-taking or the other is always being rediscovered and championed.
An important result of the coexistence of these two ideals is a recurrent ambivalence toward photography‟s means. Whatever the claims that photography might make to be a form of personal expression on a par with painting, its originality is inextricably linked to the powers of a machine. The steady growth of these powers has made possible the extraordinary informativeness and imaginative formal beauty of many photographs, like Harold Edgerton‟s high-speed photographs of a bullet hitting its target or of the swirls and eddies of a tennis stroke. But as cameras become more sophisticated, more automated, some photographers are tempted to disarm themselves or to suggest that they are not really armed, preferring to submit themselves to the limits imposed by premodern camera technology because a cruder, less high-powered machine is thought to give more interesting or emotive results, to leave more room for creative accident. For example, it has been virtually a point of honor for many photographers, including Walker Evans and Cartier-Bresson, to refuse to use modern equipment. These photographers have come to doubt the value of the camera as an instrument of “fast seeing.” Cartier-Bresson, in fact, claims that the modern camera may see too fast.
This ambivalence toward photographic means determines trends in taste. The cult of the future (of faster and faster seeing) alternates over time with the wish to return to a purer past—when images had a handmade quality. This nostalgia for some pristine state of the photographic enterprise is currently widespread and underlies the present-day enthusiasm for daguerreotypes and the wok of forgotten nineteenth-century provincial photographers. Photographers and viewers of photographs, it seems, need periodically to resist their own knowingness.
The author mentions the work of Harold Edgerton in order to provide an example of
(A) how a controlled ambivalence toward photography‟s means can produce outstanding pictures
(B) how the content of photographs has changed from the nineteenth century to the twentieth
(C) the popularity of high-speed photography in the twentieth century
(D) the relationship between photographic originality and technology
(E) the primacy of formal beauty over emotional content
The correct answer is D but I had opted A and I cannot why my option is wrong and D is true?
Which of the following statements would be most likely to begin the paragraph immediately following the passage?
(A) Photographers, as a result of their heightened awareness of time, are constantly trying to capture events and actions that are fleeting.
(B) Thus the cult of the future, the worship of machines and speed, is firmly established in spite of efforts to the contrary by some photographers.
(C) The rejection of technical knowledge, however, can never be complete and photography cannot for any length of time pretend that it has no weapons.
(D) The point of honor involved in rejecting complex equipment is, however, of no significance to the viewer of a photograph.
(E) Consequently the impulse to return to the past through images that suggest a handwrought quality is nothing more that a passing fad.
The Correct answer is C; so I cannot understand what it is correct. My options are B, D and E simultaneously but all of them are wrong and I do not know why?!
"The steady growth of these powers has made possible SOMETHING, like Harold Edgerton‟s ... etc."
Look back again, and you'll see that "these powers" refers to "the power of machines" in the previous sentence.
Thus, a paraphrase of the sentence in question would be:
The growth of the power of machines have made taking imaginative and beautiful photographs possible.
Therefore, "D: is correct.
On the other hand, "A" is not supported by anything in the text; not even by the first sentence of that paragraph, which simply says that ambivalence towards various photographic means exists.
Let's look at the rest:
"B" is wrong because it contradicts the second sentence in the previous paragraph:
"The cult of the future (of faster and faster seeing) alternates over time ...etc."
"D" is wrong because the concept of honour isn't discussed in the previous paragraph at all.
"E" is wrong because it contradicts this sentence in the previous pargraaph:
"This nostalgia for some pristine state of the photographic enterprise is currently widespread ...etc."
"C" is the right answer because it agrees with "alternates over time" from the previous paragraph.