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    #1

    he realized that he “was deceived/had been deceived” by his fund manager.

    The investor had lost millions of dollars before he realized that he “had been deceived” by his fund manager.
    The investor had lost millions of dollars before he realized that he “was deceived” by his fund manager.
    In the two sentences, which verb tense is used more properly? Which is correct?

  1. Piscean's Avatar
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    #2

    Re: he realized that he “was deceived/had been deceived” by his fund manager.

    '... had been deceived' is correct.

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    #3

    Re: he realized that he “was deceived/had been deceived” by his fund manager.

    Quote Originally Posted by Piscean View Post
    '... had been deceived' is correct.
    The investor had lost millions of dollars before he realized that he “was deceived” by his fund manager.
    ---Is this sentence incorrect?

  2. Piscean's Avatar
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    #4

    Re: he realized that he “was deceived/had been deceived” by his fund manager.

    It's not natural.

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    #5

    Re: he realized that he “was deceived/had been deceived” by his fund manager.

    The deception came before the realisation, so the past perfect is the natural choice.

  3. MikeNewYork's Avatar
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    #6

    Re: he realized that he “was deceived/had been deceived” by his fund manager.

    I would accept the simple past at the the end because of the word "before". That word established the timing of the events.

  4. Piscean's Avatar
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    #7

    Re: he realized that he “was deceived/had been deceived” by his fund manager.

    But the 'before' applies to the realisation, as Tdol noted, not the deceptiom.

  5. MikeNewYork's Avatar
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    #8

    Re: he realized that he “was deceived/had been deceived” by his fund manager.

    I am aware of that. There was a deception, then a realization.

  6. Matthew Wai's Avatar
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    #9

    Re: he realized that he “was deceived/had been deceived” by his fund manager.

    The context has made it clear that the deception must have happened before the realization, so the past perfect is optional.

    Is that correct?
    I am not a teacher.

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    #10

    Re: he realized that he “was deceived/had been deceived” by his fund manager.

    I think it's essential, not optional.
    “Every miserable fool who has nothing at all of which he can be proud, adopts as a last resource pride in the nation to which he belongs; he is ready and happy to defend all its faults and follies tooth and nail, thus reimbursing himself for his own inferiority.”

    — Arthur Schopenhauer

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