1. You have (correctly) not used an article before consumerism- it is a general idea. Rate of unemployment is not so general, so an article is needed. 'Consumerism is sure to decrease unemployment' would be a correct sentence.
2. "...update their machinery over time..." You are correct in not using an article.
a) Quality of goods is specific enough to require an article. 'Goods (no article) become higher in quality...' would be correct also.
b) quality is uncountable; therefore singular and it's third person, so the verb become needs to be plural: ''The quality... becomes..."
c) "...customers are not interested in buying them"
d) This whole sentence is awkward and confusing. It requires multiple readings to understand that "them" refers to "things" and not "companies with things".
I suggest something like, 'Quality increases as a way to compete in a market flooded with low-quality goods'.
Student or Learner