1. He went away sad.=He was sad when he went away.
2. He went away sadly.=He was sad to go away.
Are the above paraphrases acceptable?
I need native speakers' help.
Yes, but 2. could also mean that when he went away he had an aura of sadness about him/his demeanor indicated that he was sad.
"Invading armies have no rights." Noam Chomsky
Then the property of having an aura of sadness ... is one that can be ascribed to "he", rather than modifying the verb.
PaulMatthews, please read this extract from the Forum Guidelines:
You are welcome to answer questions posted in the Ask a Teacher forum as long as your suggestions, help, and advice reflect a good understanding of the English language. If you are not a teacher, you will need to state that clearly in your post.
NOT A TEACHER
I found some information that helped me, and I wanted to share it with you.
According to three scholars:
1. Sadly, Alex lost the election.
a. "Sadly" modifies the whole sentence. That is to say, the speaker is expressing an opinion.
2. Max was sadly mistaken.
a. "Sadly" modifies "mistaken."
3. Sadly, Tony opened the letter.
a. "Sadly" probably modifies the subject "Tony."
Source: McCafferty, Bull, and Killie, Studies in Celebration of Toril Swan (2005), courtesy of Google "books."
P.S. ONLY my opinion: If you want to say "He went away sadly," I would prefer "He sadly went away." It sounds more natural to me. I do not, however, have the confidence to say what "sadly" modifies in that sentence.
In the first and second examples by The Parser, you could replace "sadly" with "unfortunately". In the third, there are two ways of reading it. The first is that it was unfortunate that Tony opened the letter. The second is that he had a sad demeanour as he opened the letter.
I don't know if "sadly" is used in the same way in AmE but in BrE we regularly use it in place of "unfortunately".
Remember - if you don't use correct capitalisation, punctuation and spacing, anything you write will be incorrect.