Student or Learner
Of course, he is creative, but he overcame his circumstance with courage and effort.
1.Does it sound natural to say "overcome ones' circumstance with something"?
Or "overcome one's fate with something"?
2. And do we have to add "his" to "courage and effort"?
Yes, you can overcome your circumstances (especially adverse circumstances).
I don't think you can overcome your fate.
No, you don't have to add the word "his" to "courage and effort". (It would have to be his courage. It couldn't be somebody else's.)