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  1. keannu's Avatar
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    #1

    Beamed traffic will travel through tunnels

    The Beam-Operated Traffic System, proposed by a group of Swedish engineers, does away with tarred roads and independently controlled vehicles, and replaces them with innumerable small carriages suspended from electrified rails along a vast interconnected web of steel beams crisscrossing the skyline. The entire system would be computer-controlled and operate without human intervention........................ It is true that the initial outlay for a section of the beam-operated system will be more than for a similar stretch of tarred road. However, costs for the proposed system must necessarily include vehicle costs, which are not factored into road-building budgets. Savings made will include all tunnels, since it costs about US $120,000 per kilometer to build a new six lane road tunnel. Subway train tunnels cost about half that amount, because they are smaller in size. Tunnels carrying beamed traffic will have a narrower cross-sectional diameter and can be dug at less depth than existing tunnels, further reducing costs.

    Q. Beamed traffic will travel through tunnels costing less to build than subway tunnels. (T)
    ==============================================
    The answer is true for the question. Considering the last sentence's "further reducing costs", beamed tunnels seem to cost less. But in the previous sentences, do "all tunnels" mean "beamed tunnels" or "ordinary road tunnels"? This part seems to imply the opposite meaning that beamed tunnels are more expensive than subway tunnels.

    * If you want to see how beamed traffic look, please visit this website.
    http://www.ielts-mentor.com/reading-...traffic-system


  2. Skrej's Avatar
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    #2

    Re: Beamed traffic will travel through tunnels

    It means all new (beam) tunnels. Beam tunnels are less expensive to construct, because they are half the diameter and don't have to be dug as deep.

    The overall initial cost is higher per mile for beam tunnels, because it includes the beam vehicles themselves, whereas tarred road costs don't include the vehicles that travel on them.

    Part of that increased cost however is offset by the cheaper beam tunnels.
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    #3

    Re: Beamed traffic will travel through tunnels

    They will save money on "all tunnels" needed for this "beamed" traffic. It doesn't make any sense to include tunnels built for other types of traffic as part of the savings for this "beamed" traffic.
    (Whoever named this needs to go back to the drawing board. I don't want to hear about being "beamed" anywhere until it's a transporter like on Star Trek. If you tell me I am going to be beamed and then you put me on a suspended train, it's a severe disappointment.)

  3. keannu's Avatar
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    #4

    Re: Beamed traffic will travel through tunnels

    There are three types of tunnels here.:
    Beamed tunnels, road tunnels, subway tunnels. What's the order of building cost for each? It's confusing.

    Also, I can't imagine there cac be tunnels in the air. What kind of tunnels are they?
    Last edited by keannu; 03-May-2016 at 22:34.

  4. Skrej's Avatar
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    #5

    Re: Beamed traffic will travel through tunnels

    From most to least expensive tunnel:
    Road
    Subway
    Beam

    The carriages hang from a track, or beam. When the beam comes to a mountain, it will have to either go around the mountain, or go through the mountain, just like a regular road. If they want to go through, they'll have to dig a tunnel, albeit at a lesser cost than if it were a regular road, because the tunnel doesn't have to be as large in diameter.

    The smaller the hole, the cheaper the tunnel.

    It's very similar to a cable car, as in this picture. Those support poles and wires have to either go around, over, or through a mountain. If they want to go through, they need a tunnel.

    Attached Thumbnails Attached Thumbnails fy-4064x2171.jpg  
    Last edited by Skrej; 03-May-2016 at 23:40.
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  5. keannu's Avatar
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    #6

    Re: Beamed traffic will travel through tunnels

    Thanks a lot for your detailed explanation even with a picture. Sorry, I still don't get what "savings made will include all tunnels" means.
    Is it like this? What "savings" does it mean? less cost to build the beaming system?
    *road cost = $120,000
    *subway cost = $60,000
    *beaming system : tunnel cost($30,000) + vehicle cost($100,000)=$130,000
    ======================
    However, costs for the proposed system must necessarily include vehicle costs, which are not factored into road-building budgets.
    Savings made will include all tunnels, since it costs about US $120,000 per kilometer to build a new six lane road tunnel.

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    #7

    Re: Beamed traffic will travel through tunnels

    The savings on tunnels is as compared to building tunnels for regular roads. Obviously, building a tunnel costs more than not building a tunnel. But building one for these "beamed" trains costs less than building one for a highway for cars.

  6. keannu's Avatar
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    #8

    Re: Beamed traffic will travel through tunnels

    "Savings made will include all tunnels" sounds weird. Why didn't the writer say "building all new beam traffic tunnels will save money"?
    Savings made will include all tunnels, since it costs about US $120,000 per kilometer to build a new six lane road tunnel.

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    #9

    Re: Beamed traffic will travel through tunnels

    I think the author left a few zeroes off the building-cost estimates. Perhaps they meant US$120,000,000 per kilometer. If six-lane highway tunnels could be built for $120K/km, all highways would be underground!

    In any case, all the proposed sentences are awkward.
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