Your first five are fine, though I'd add 'determinative' phrase (as in "almost every", "not many") to the list.
The items "infinitive phrase", "gerund phrase" and "participle phrase" are fine too; they are sub-categories of the more general category 'verb phrase'. It just depends on how detailed you want the classification to be.
An 'absolute' is really a special kind of non-finite clause, not a phrase at all, so you don't need that one. And an 'appositive' phrase is noun phrase with no special characteristics, so no need for a separate category (or sub-category) there.
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