Hello Pid, welcome to Using English!
Unfortunately, in British English at least, "quite" can also be used in opposite senses:
1. "What did you think of the play?" "It was quite good..."
— it was moderately good.
2. "What did you think of the play?" "It was quite good!"
— it was surprisingly good.
In written English, the punctuation is the clue: to convey the meaning in #2, you need the exclamation mark. In spoken English, intonation is the clue: #2 will be said in a "surprised" tone, and will rise at the end; #1 will be said with a verbal shrug, and will probably fall towards the end.
"Rather" has much the same tendency; however, I would present its function slightly differently from Cambridge (if that's not heresy):
3. It's rather cold today.
— it's noticeably cold today; but I'm not going to get too excited about it.
4. It's rather cold today!
— it's noticeably cold today; I'm a little surprised by that fact, and would like to draw your attention to it.
All the best,
Student or Learner