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    #1

    Could we use "with" as a preposition or conjunction in the sentence below?

    the sentence is "Using case-control, cohort, and case-crossover analysis, the investigators found that tramadol increased the risk of hospitalization for hypoglycemia by more than three-fold, with the risk particularly elevated in the first 30 days of treatment."

    In my opinion, the word "with" is a preposition, so after "with" we need a noun or noun phrase. But in this sentence, after "with" we have the whole sentence.

    I wonder if "with" can be used as a conjunction. Would you explain it for me.

    Thanks in advance.

  1. Raymott's Avatar
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    #2

    Re: Could we use "with" as a preposition or conjunction in the sentence below?

    There's no sentence after 'with', since there's no finite verb. This is how I see it:
    'risk' is the noun. "particularly elevated in the first 30 days of treatment" is an adjectival phrase. It means "with the risk being elevated ..."

    "He painted a landscape picture, with the sky [being] blue."

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    #3

    Re: Could we use "with" as a preposition or conjunction in the sentence below?

    "... the investigators found that tramadol increased the risk of hospitalization for hypoglycemia by more than three-fold, with [the risk particularly elevated in the first 30 days of treatment]."


    Yes, "with" is a preposition in your example; it heads the underlined preposition phrase. Prepositions take a range of complement types, including past-participial clauses. Here, the complement of "with" is the passive past-participial clause "the risk particularly elevated in the first 30 days ...", in which "elevated" is a past participle.

    Note that passive clauses like this one are sometimes called 'bare' passives because they lack the passive be marker. (cf. "with the risk being particularly elevated in the first 30 days of treatment").

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