Results 1 to 6 of 6
  1. Bennevis's Avatar
    • Member Info
      • Native Language:
      • Russian
      • Home Country:
      • Russian Federation
      • Current Location:
      • Russian Federation

    • Join Date: Aug 2011
    • Posts: 1,051
    • Post Thanks / Like
    #1

    by reference to

    I need someone to tell me if 'by reference to' could be used to mean 'taking into account'.

    Here's an example from a well-known online dictionary:

    The numbers were calculated by reference to the most recent census.

    I appreciate it.





    • Member Info
      • Native Language:
      • English
      • Home Country:
      • England
      • Current Location:
      • England

    • Join Date: Jun 2010
    • Posts: 21,536
    • Post Thanks / Like
    #2

    Re: by reference to

    See definition 4 in the link: by consulting.

  2. Bennevis's Avatar
    • Member Info
      • Native Language:
      • Russian
      • Home Country:
      • Russian Federation
      • Current Location:
      • Russian Federation

    • Join Date: Aug 2011
    • Posts: 1,051
    • Post Thanks / Like
    #3

    Re: by reference to

    What about the ones below?

    1) The data are available by practice, for all practices in a clinical commissioning group, and for groups of practices classified as being similar through having populations with similar levels of deprivation, or by reference to a set of characteristics used to define practice peer groups. (by Chantelle Elizabeth Wiseman and Richard Baker)

    2)
    ... decision to issue gender reassignment certificate to be made having regard solely to applicants' external physical characteristics or also by reference to applicants' internal physical characteristics ... (Supreme Court of Western Australia)

    Does 'by reference to' mean 'taking into account' here?

  3. Bennevis's Avatar
    • Member Info
      • Native Language:
      • Russian
      • Home Country:
      • Russian Federation
      • Current Location:
      • Russian Federation

    • Join Date: Aug 2011
    • Posts: 1,051
    • Post Thanks / Like
    #4

    Re: by reference to

    Also found this one:

    These “banked” amounts are up-rated each year by reference to inflation. (University of Dublin)


    If 'by reference to' does mean 'taking into account', I'd use it all the time in my translations.

  4. Bennevis's Avatar
    • Member Info
      • Native Language:
      • Russian
      • Home Country:
      • Russian Federation
      • Current Location:
      • Russian Federation

    • Join Date: Aug 2011
    • Posts: 1,051
    • Post Thanks / Like
    #5

    Re: by reference to

    I want to KNOW. Please help.

  5. Bennevis's Avatar
    • Member Info
      • Native Language:
      • Russian
      • Home Country:
      • Russian Federation
      • Current Location:
      • Russian Federation

    • Join Date: Aug 2011
    • Posts: 1,051
    • Post Thanks / Like
    #6

    Re: by reference to

    Looks like another grey area in English. Sad.

Similar Threads

  1. Is this an anaphoric reference or cataphoric reference?
    By mrcool_uk in forum Ask a Teacher
    Replies: 4
    Last Post: 02-Nov-2014, 11:12
  2. [General] Do I need to reference myself?
    By flobeth in forum Ask a Teacher
    Replies: 3
    Last Post: 22-Aug-2013, 03:39
  3. [General] reference
    By Ashiuhto in forum Ask a Teacher
    Replies: 1
    Last Post: 01-Feb-2013, 04:56
  4. reference to
    By ratóncolorao in forum Ask a Teacher
    Replies: 1
    Last Post: 03-Nov-2011, 11:09
  5. First reference
    By Allen165 in forum Ask a Teacher
    Replies: 1
    Last Post: 25-Nov-2010, 18:17

Bookmarks

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •