Adjuncts are parts of a sentence that are used to elaborate on or modify other words or phrases in a sentence. Along with complements, subjects, verbs, and objects, adjuncts are one of the five main components of the structure of clauses. A distinguishing feature of adjuncts is that their removal from sentences does not alter the grammatical integrity and correctness of the sentence. In other words, adjuncts expand on the word or phrase that they are modifying, but their presence in sentences is not needed for the sentence to stand alone. Nouns, adjectives, and adverbs can all be adjuncts.
Source: (Underlined emphasis mine)
It seems to me that "...back on the table" is an argument by the above definitions. Removing this portion of the sentence renders it meaningless. "...on the table", however, would meet the definition of an adjunct; removing it leaves a perfectly meaningful, complete sentence, but its presence adds additional information.My question is what does the "meaning of the predicate" designates?
Does it simply mean, that with the complement being ommited the predicate becomes ambiguous? Please, consider my reasoning below:
Put the cheese
back on the table. --> Should I put it on the table, in a purse or put it on as a hat and wear it to work?
Here, "back" appears to "complete" the meaning of the verb "put", whereas "on the table" can be omitted, because it doesn' affect the predicate in any way, and therefore can be thought of as structurally dispensable.
"...there" is redundant. Its removal does not change the sentence unless the speaker is indicating a particular place at which "he" stood.More examples:
- he stood there in silence --> "there" complements (and completes) the meaning of the verb, whereas "in silence" is dispensable;
"...in silence" is clearly an adjunct. "He stood there" is a complete, meaningful sentence. Removing "...in silence" removed information, but did not render the sentence grammatically incorrect.
Not meaningless. Perfectly natural statement of an action you might be performing at this moment. You could add an adjunct to it to provide more information of course. "I'm running in the park".
- I'm running --> meaningless outside the context (running a marathon, running a business, running away from problems, or running out of whiskey?);
I'm running in the hallway of the Bristol University"...of the Bristol University" is an adjunct, yes.--> "in the hallway" - complement; "of the Bristol University" - adjunct;
The bag is under the table/roundYour emphasized portion is not an adjunct since removing it destroys the grammatical correctness of the sentence. "The bag is." becomes an incomplete sentence.- "under the table" and "round" determine the state of the bag (i.e. whether its location or shape is in the focus)".
Hopefully, the grammarians will give you more defined responses later.
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