Student or Learner
Verbs like claim, maintain, and contend mean that one is stating something they think it is true but without proof. In the context of academic English, I've learnt that these are used in counter arguments and REBUTTALS should be followed (an example below). To what extent is this true? Are these words exclusively used for the purpose of fulfilling the writer's intention to rebut? I'm not sure but I think I've come across people using maintain where they didn't follow up with any rebuttals.
E.g. Some practitioners claim that students learn best from direct translation; however, research shows that ...
I think you could use maintain for something that may have had less evidence in the past when you want to suggest that new evidence confirms it, but usually these verbs would be followed by a rebuttal. To undermine a view without presenting any evidence doesn't strike me as academically rigorous- it would sound more like a commentator in the media.