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  1. Newbie
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    #1

    How to form simple past / past participle and gerund

    Good morning,

    First of all, I would like to introduce myself - I am interested to languages in general, and at the moment, I am doing a refresher course in English.

    I have recently stumbled over the problem of how to form the simple past / past participle / gerund form of English verbs. I made a rule, and I would like to ask if it is correct:

    In case of regular verbs, if one - and not two - stressed vowel is followed by a consonant, the consonant is doubled and then followed by -ed.
    Exception: in British English, "to travel" becomes "travelled, travelling" even though the e is unstressed.

    examples:
    planned, donned, but: leaned, abandoned

  2. VIP Member
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    #2

    Re: How to form simple past / past participle and gerund

    Your rule works in American English for words of more than one syllable.

    For one-syllable words, the final consonant is doubled if the presence of the added e would otherwise change the pronunciation.
    I am not a teacher.

  3. emsr2d2's Avatar
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    English Teacher
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    #3

    Re: How to form simple past / past participle and gerund

    Quote Originally Posted by dreoilín View Post
    ... I am interested to in languages in general, ...
    See above.
    Remember - if you don't use correct capitalisation, punctuation and spacing, anything you write will be incorrect.

  4. Newbie
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    #4

    Re: How to form simple past / past participle and gerund

    Thank you for your advice. I have revised my rule for British English as follows:


    [i]If an English word ends in one vowel + one consonant, the final consonant may be doubled when the –ing-form or the –ed-form is spelt.


    - This happens in one-syllable words if the –ed-form or the ing-form would entail a pronunciation change, e. g. donning, donned.


    - It also happens in words with more than one syllable if the word's stress is on the last syllable and if the –ed-form or the ing-form would entail a pronunciation change, e. g. allotted, allotting


    Exception: In British English, there is a gemination of the letter “l“ in words which end in an unstressed –el: e. g. travelling, travelled.

  5. VIP Member
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    #5

    Re: How to form simple past / past participle and gerund

    I've seen the BrE rules but I don't want to comment on them except that I'm pretty sure Brits double the final consonant a lot more often than they would suggest.

    If you leave out the last sentence, your rules work in AmE.
    I am not a teacher.

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