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Thread: by + gerund

  1. Newbie
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    #1

    by + gerund

    When describing the method how an action has been done, is there any difference between gerunds after 'by' and gerunds alone?

    Here some examples.
    They've been frightening people by saying the economy will get worse.
    They've been frightening people saying the economy will get worse.

  2. Raymott's Avatar
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    #2

    Re: by + gerund

    I'd put a comma after 'people' in the second. Otherwise, it could mean "They've been frightening people who have been saying that the economy will get worse."
    It might be OK in speech, because the intonation should discriminate them.
    Really, I'd use 'by'.

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