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  1. Senior Member
    • Member Info
      • Native Language:
      • Russian
      • Home Country:
      • Russian Federation
      • Current Location:
      • Russian Federation

    • Join Date: Oct 2007
    • Posts: 757

    ruled: past tense or past participle?

    Hello everyone,

    With the evolution of mammals a forebrain developed—first the primitive forebrain of lower mammals ruled primarily by instinct and emotion (and containing our emotional center, the limbic system), then the cerebral hemispheres, with all their sophisticated computing ability, the “little gray cells” that most of us identify with the human mind. Just as we carry the whole history of cosmic evolution within our consciousness, so we think and function with the whole history of life’s evolution on earth.

    What is "ruled" in the context above: past tense of the verb "rule" or past partiiple?

    Thank you.

  2. VIP Member
    Interested in Language
    • Member Info
      • Native Language:
      • American English
      • Home Country:
      • United States
      • Current Location:
      • United States

    • Join Date: Dec 2015
    • Posts: 14,482

    Re: ruled: past tense or past participle?

    Its a past participle acting as an adjective.
    I am not a teacher.

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