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  1. nininaz's Avatar
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    #1

    Paris is the city where I feel most at home in.

    Hello all,

    Do these sentences convert correctly to cleft-sentences?

    I feel most at home in Paris.

    Paris is the city where I feel most at home in.
    Paris is the city that I feel most at home in.
    Paris is the city in which I feel most at home.


    We are going to Spain this year.

    Spain is the country/the place where we are going this year.
    Spain is the country/the place that we are going to this year.
    Spain is the country/the place to which we are going this year.
    Spain is the country/the place which we are going to this year.

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    #2

    Re: Paris is the city where I feel most at home in.

    Every sentence but the one in the thread's title is correct. The title sentence will be okay if you remove in.

    Not knowing what a cleft sentence is, I don't know whether these are correct examples of them.
    Last edited by GoesStation; 03-Mar-2017 at 20:45. Reason: Correct a confusing word.
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  3. teechar's Avatar
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    #3

    Re: Paris is the city where I feel most at home in.

    Quote Originally Posted by GoesStation View Post
    Every sentence but the one in the thread's title is correct.
    But the first sentence is exactly the same as that in the title!

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    #4

    Re: Paris is the city where I feel most at home in.

    Quote Originally Posted by teechar View Post
    But the first sentence is exactly the same as that in the title!
    Let me rephrase that. Every sentence, except the one which also serves as the thread's title, is correct.

    Better?
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    #5

    Re: Paris is the city where I feel most at home in.

    They are grammatically okay, other than the first example, which does not require the preposition "in".

    But in my experience these are not clefts. Superficially, they look like reversed pseudo-clefts, but they have conventional relative clauses, whereas the clefts have fused relative clauses.

    Reversed pseudo-clefts would be "Paris is where I feel most at home" / "Spain is where we are going this year.

  6. nininaz's Avatar
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    #6

    Re: Paris is the city where I feel most at home in.

    Quote Originally Posted by PaulMatthews View Post
    They are grammatically okay, other than the first example, which does not require the preposition "in".

    But in my experience these are not clefts. Superficially, they look like reversed pseudo-clefts, but they have conventional relative clauses, whereas the clefts have fused relative clauses.

    Reversed pseudo-clefts would be "Paris is where I feel most at home" / "Spain is where we are going this year.
    Thanks teacher.
    You are right, but in Michael Swan book, Practical English Usage, this structure called 'cleft-sentences'.


    As I have learned, the sentence "It is Paris where I am going this year." is considered as a cleft-sentence.

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    #7

    Re: Paris is the city where I feel most at home in.

    Quote Originally Posted by nininaz View Post
    As I have learned, the sentence "It is Paris where I am going this year" is considered as a cleft-sentence.
    This is correct. You might be interested in reading the following explanation:

    We use cleft sentences, especially in speaking, to connect what is already understood to what is new to the listener. In a cleft sentence, a single message is divided (cleft) into two clauses. This allows us to focus on the new information.

    A:
    Sharon’s car got broken into yesterday, did it?
    B: No. It was Nina’s car that got broken into!
    Focus (new information): it was Nina’s car

    Understood already (old information): a car got broken into

    A:
    You’ve met my mother, haven’t you?
    B: No, it was your sister (that) I met!
    Focus (new information): it was your sister

    Understood already (old information): I met someone in your family

    Is it August that you are going on holiday?

    Focus (new information): the month August
    Understood already (old information): you are going on holiday

    (English Grammar Today, Cambridge University Press)
    Last edited by kilroy65; 04-Mar-2017 at 11:29. Reason: Formatting

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    #8

    Re: Paris is the city where I feel most at home in.

    Quote Originally Posted by nininaz View Post
    Thanks teacher.
    You are right, but in Michael Swan book, Practical English Usage, this structure called 'cleft-sentences'.
    As I have learned, the sentence "It is Paris where I am going this year." is considered as a cleft-sentence.
    That's a different construction: "It is Paris where I am going this year" is an it-cleft, where the backgrounded element is a relative clause.

    You could also say "Where I am going this year is Paris" (pseudo-cleft) or "Paris is where I am going this year" (reversed pseudo-cleft).

    Note that the backgrounded element in a pseudo-cleft is a "fused" relative construction in which fused "there" means "the place where/to which".

    Your original examples are neither it-clefts nor pseudo clefts, not genuine clefts at all.
    Last edited by PaulMatthews; 04-Mar-2017 at 11:34.

  9. nininaz's Avatar
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    #9

    Re: Paris is the city where I feel most at home in.

    Quote Originally Posted by PaulMatthews View Post

    Note that the backgrounded element in a pseudo-cleft is a "fused" relative construction in which fused "there" means "the place where/to which".
    I can't figure out above explanation, but I now know what cleft, it-cleft, all-cleft, pseudo and reverse-pseudo cleft mean.
    Quote Originally Posted by PaulMatthews View Post
    Your original examples are neither it-clefts nor pseudo clefts, not genuine clefts at all.
    What this type of sentence is called? I think we can just consider it as 'complex sentences'. However, Michael Swan called them cleft sentences.

    Could you please take a look at Michael Swan book?
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    Last edited by nininaz; 04-Mar-2017 at 12:04.

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    #10

    Re: Paris is the city where I feel most at home in.

    Note that Swan does not hyphenate cleft sentence.
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