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  1. tahasozgen's Avatar
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    #1

    By February 15, 1876, Bell __ an application for a patent for his 'improvement in tel

    By February 15, 1876, Bell __ an application for a patent for his 'improvement in telegraphy' at the United States Patent Office.

    A) filed
    B) has filed
    C) was filed
    D) had been filed
    E) had filed

    My answer is A. Key depicts E. There is no second verb there, so why past participle is chosen over the past simple? Thanks in advance.
    I am not a teacher.

  2. emsr2d2's Avatar
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    #2

    Re: By February 15, 1876, Bell __ an application for a patent for his 'improvement in

    The key word here is "by". When reporting a past event with "by", we use the past perfect.

    By 7am today, I had been awake for three hours.
    By Tuesday, he had already done a full week's work.
    By March, she had been on holiday five times!
    Remember - if you don't use correct capitalisation, punctuation and spacing, anything you write will be incorrect.

  3. VIP Member
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    #3

    Re: By February 15, 1876, Bell __ an application for a patent for his 'improvement in

    The past perfect (E) is the most appropriate. If we do something 'by' a time, we normally mean 'in the period up to that time', a classic situation for a perfect form.

    In informal conversation, you will often hear a past simple (A) form.

    (crossposted with ems)

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    #4

    Re: By February 15, 1876, Bell __ an application for a patent for his 'improvement in

    Remember that questions require subject-verb inversion (and note the name of the tense). Ask why is the past perfect chosen?
    I am not a teacher.

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