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  1. #1
    newkeenlearner's Avatar
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    rarely or never leaving their homes.

    Why does the author use "leaving" instead of "leaves" here?

    The Hikikomori are inhabitants of Tokyo who cannot cope with the mechanical coldness and robotic uniformity of a megacity and have become recluses, rarely or never leaving their homes.

    Source: Vocabulary In Use (Upper-Intermediate)

  2. #2
    Matthew Wai's Avatar
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    Re: rarely or never leaving their homes.

    The inhabitants have become recluses, rarely or never leaving their homes.

    I consider 'leaving' a present participle modifying the subject 'The inhabitants'.
    I am not a teacher.

  3. #3
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    Re: rarely or never leaving their homes.

    You would use "leave" if you said if this way:

    ...and they rarely or never leave their homes.

  4. #4
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    Re: rarely or never leaving their homes.

    Can we say? I think the author used the -ing form to say the reason.

    The Hikikomori are inhabitants of Tokyo who cannot cope with the mechanical coldness and robotic uniformity of a megacity and have become recluses, because they rarely or never leave their homes.


  5. #5
    Matthew Wai's Avatar
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    Re: rarely or never leaving their homes.

    They have become recluses, and, as a result, they rarely or never leave their homes.
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  6. #6
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    Re: rarely or never leaving their homes.

    Quote Originally Posted by newkeenlearner View Post
    Why does the author use "leaving" instead of "leaves" here?
    What made you think of the third-person singular form of the verb?

  7. #7
    GoesStation is offline Moderator
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    Re: rarely or never leaving their homes.

    Quote Originally Posted by newkeenlearner View Post
    Can we say? I think the author used the -ing form to say the reason.

    The Hikikomori are inhabitants of Tokyo who cannot cope with the mechanical coldness and robotic uniformity of a megacity and have become recluses, because they rarely or never leave their homes.
    That is grammatically correct but it changes the meaning. The author expanded the idea of "recluses" by telling us these people stay home. Adding because says staying home is the reason or explanation.
    I am not a teacher.

  8. #8
    newkeenlearner's Avatar
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    Re: rarely or never leaving their homes.

    Quote Originally Posted by teechar View Post
    What made you think of the third-person singular form of the verb?
    I meant "leave". I made a mistake.

  9. #9
    newkeenlearner's Avatar
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    Re: rarely or never leaving their homes.

    That is grammatically correct but it changes the meaning. The author expanded the idea of "recluses" by telling us these people stay home. Adding because says staying home is the reason or explanation.
    Thanks. I understand. We have to use "so" or "as a result" to keep the main meaning.
    The Hikikomori are inhabitants of Tokyo who cannot cope with the mechanical coldness and robotic uniformity of a megacity and have become recluses, so they rarely or never leave their homes.

  10. #10
    Tarheel's Avatar
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    Re: rarely or never leaving their homes.

    Quote Originally Posted by newkeenlearner View Post
    Thanks. I understand. We have to use "so" or "as a result" to keep the main meaning.
    The Hikikomori are inhabitants of Tokyo who cannot cope with the mechanical coldness and robotic uniformity of a megacity and have become recluses, so they rarely or never leave their homes.
    There is no need to tamper with the original. The writer starts off by explaining why they do what they do (never leave home), then he expands on the word "recluses" with "rarely or never leaving their homes", driving the point home. It is fine as is.

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