Not quite; "after all I have done for you" is fine, but you need an object for the verb "stab".
Also, if you use the present perfect in the "after" clause, with this construction, it's more usual to use a present tense in the main clause, e.g.
1. "After all I've done for you, you go and stab me in the back!"
With the past tense in the main clause, you would be more likely to use a past perfect (or a simple past) in the "after" clause, e.g.
2. After all I'd done for you, you stabbed me in the back!"
It's also very common to use "how could you..." in the main clause:
3. After all I've done for you, how could you treat me this way?
All the best,