You're well on your way to understanding the technical rules of articles better than I do. But I'll try to touch on each sentence a little and see if it clarifies anything for you.
Each time I came across words like "the growth of books" the introduction of programmes", "the adoption of ideas" I do not know why "the" was used before these words. Please explain along with the following.
The, above, indicates that the phrase 'growth of books' or 'introduction of programmes' is something that is already familiar to the audience/reader. Article A would be used otherwise, to newly introduce the same noun phrase.
A growth of books resulted from the administration's latest initiatives. The growth of books can be witnessed in any local library in your neighborhoods.
An adjective like this would work as well in place of the above as well, but that's another story.
If it is presumed that the reader already is knows of the growth of books, then you could have begun the paragraph with The.
The events are the result of particular historical conditions.
The events are a result of particular historical conditions.
The or a can be interchanged here with very little difference in meaning.
The sentence reads a little better with a since it breaks up the monotonous repeated the.
An introduction of new methods is good for our society.
Introduction of new methods are good for our society.
The introduction of new methods are good for our society.
Linking verbs Is and are link good to the phrase introduction of new methods and not just methods. The entire phrase is singular, so is must be used for both. Otherwise, the use of each introductory article makes little difference in these three sentences. And again, the would indicate that the reader/audience is somewhat familiar with the subject.
His action led to the distortion of societal values.
HIs action led to a distortion of societal values.
His action led to distortion of societal values.
The same applies to these examples as well, and each is acceptable usage.
Here is an excellent page for getting the basics.