Source : Korean SAT English 2021 by Korean Education Broadcasting System - 87p.7

Within the domain of concrete entities, objects and substances have very different properties. Objects are individuated, whereas substances are nonindividuated.
Thus, the two kinds of entities have fundamentally different criteria for the notion of identity or sameness. When we say that two objects are identical or the same, we are referring to two objects in their entirety and not to two distinctive parts of a single object.
In contrast, when we say that two substances are identical or the same, there is no notion of wholeness. Substances are of scattered existence, and there is no such thing as whole sand, whole water, or whole clay. This portion of sand is identical to that portion of sand, as long as the two portions consist of the same physical constituents.
This difference in identity or sameness between objects and substances leads to fundamentally different extension principles for determining category membership across the two ontological kinds.



  • This question and answer is made by me to practice for expected essay questions in my student's finals.


Q : What is the fundamentally different criteria for the notion of identity or sameness between objects and substances? Describe using in ten to twenty words.

A : For identity or sameness, objects can be determined in terms of wholeness, whereas substances can be determined in terms of scattered existence.

If you find any improper words or content - especially the underlined- please let me know.