Source : Korean SAT English 2021 by Korean Education Broadcasting System - 99p.4

Because scientific research is so often conducted in the interests of national defense or under the sponsorship of private firms that hope to profit from applications of the findings, the norms of common ownership and publication are often suspended. Such situations have led to innumerable conflicts in scientific circles. An outstanding example is the race to publish the complete map and inventory of the human genome — all the sequences of human DNA that constitute our genes. In 2001, two rival groups raced to be the first to complete the research, one in the private sector, the Celera Genomics Corporation, led by J. Craig Venter, and the other a government-funded laboratory headed by Francis Collins. An argument raged over whether the private corporation was trying to establish patents on human genetic sequences, a violation of the norm of openness. The public laboratory had, or claimed to have, no such business interest. Eventually the competing teams compromised and issued a joint publication of the map, but the controversy and legal battles over issuing patents for genetic material have continued.


  • This question and answer are made by me to practice for expected essay questions in my students’ finals.


Q : What does it bring about that scientific research is so often conducted in the interests of national defense or under the sponsorship of private firms?

A : It often brings about suspended norms of common ownership and publication, which has led to innumerable conflicts in scientific circles

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