Source : Korean SAT English 2021 by Korean Education Broadcasting System - 177p.17

Popular participation in conflict in the nineteenth century cannot be understood without examining the role of empire. Individuals had always gone to the colonies for profit or to settle. But individuals also participated in nineteenth-century imperial campaigns for a novel reason. Hannah Arendt later dismissively characterized imperialism as “the export of superfluous men and superfluous capital.” She was correct that colonial functionaries were often from marginal populations — Cecil Rhodes, after all, would advocate imperialism “to settle surplus population” and thus “avoid civil war” — but these marginalized individuals increasingly used their participation in colonial conflicts to make claims to membership in the home nation. Scots, for example, were excluded from membership of the English community, but by participating in the wars against France and the empire in India, they became part of the British nation, increasing the warfighting capacity of the latter. Empire was a crucial mechanism in constructing the exchange in the nineteenth century.

  • This question and answer are made by me to practice for expected essay questions in my students’ finals.

Q : What does the "exchange" in the last sentence refer to?

A : Marginalized individuals from a home nation increasingly exchanged their participation in colonial conflicts for their membership in the home nation.

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