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    #1

    of which provide mechanical interlocking and toughening at critical strains

    Is the use of "of" necessary here? Without it the meaning of the sentence appears to be very clear.


    ===============
    Toughening mechanisms of the elytra of the diabolical ironclad beetle

    Abstract
    Joining dissimilar materials such as plastics and metals in engineered structures remains a challenge1. Mechanical fastening, conventional welding and adhesive bonding are examples of techniques currently used for this purpose, but each of these methods presents its own set of problems2 such as formation of stress concentrators or degradation under environmental exposure, reducing strength and causing premature failure. In the biological tissues of numerous animal and plant species, efficient strategies have evolved to synthesize, construct and integrate composites that have exceptional mechanical properties3. One impressive example is found in the exoskeletal forewings (elytra) of the diabolical ironclad beetle, Phloeodes diabolicus. Lacking the ability to fly away from predators, this desert insect has extremely impact-resistant and crush-resistant elytra, produced by complex and graded interfaces. Here, using advanced microscopy, spectroscopy and in situ mechanical testing, we identify multiscale architectural designs within the exoskeleton of this beetle, and examine the resulting mechanical response and toughening mechanisms. We highlight a series of interdigitated sutures, the ellipsoidal geometry and laminated microstructure of which provide mechanical interlocking and toughening at critical strains, while avoiding catastrophic failure. These observations could be applied in developing tough, impact- and crush-resistant materials for joining dissimilar materials. We demonstrate this by creating interlocking sutures from biomimetic composites that show a considerable increase in toughness compared with a frequently used engineering joint.

    Source: Nature Published: 21 October 2020
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2813-8

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    #2

    Re: of which provide mechanical interlocking and toughening at critical strains

    It's necessary. It is the ellipsoidal geometry and laminated microstructure of the series which provide mechanical interlocking and toughening at critical strains.
    Last edited by Piscean; 22-Oct-2020 at 13:54. Reason: typo
    Typoman - writer of rongs

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    #3

    Re: of which provide mechanical interlocking and toughening at critical strains

    Quote Originally Posted by Piscean View Post
    It's necessary. It is the ellipsoidal geometry and laminated microstructure of the series which which provide mechanical interlocking and toughening at critical strains.
    Sorry. Two "whiches" make me hesitate in understanding your reply.

    In the original structure "a series of interdigitated sutures, the ellipsoidal geometry and laminated microstructure of which provide mechanical interlocking and toughening at critical strains", "which" = the series?

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    #4

    Re: of which provide mechanical interlocking and toughening at critical strains

    Quote Originally Posted by GoodTaste View Post
    Sorry. Two "whiches" make me hesitate in understanding your reply.
    Typo, now corrected. Sorry.
    Typoman - writer of rongs

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    #5

    Re: of which provide mechanical interlocking and toughening at critical strains

    OK. Now my understanding moves closer to the answer.

    What does "which" refer to? The series?

    It is similar to "It is Mr.X who provides help at that critical moment." Here, "who" refers back to Mr.X, then in the OP, "which" refers to back what?

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    #6

    Re: of which provide mechanical interlocking and toughening at critical strains

    Quote Originally Posted by GoodTaste View Post
    OK. Now my understanding moves closer to the answer.

    What does "which" refer to? The series?
    The interdigitated sutures.
    I am not a teacher.

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    #7

    Re: of which provide mechanical interlocking and toughening at critical strains

    Quote Originally Posted by GoesStation View Post
    The interdigitated sutures.
    It is exactly why I didn't understand the use of "of" there: The interdigitated sutures provide
    mechanical interlocking and toughening at critical strains. It is OK and PERFECT. Why "Of The interdigitated sutures provide mechanical interlocking and toughening at critical strains"? What function does "of" serve?

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    #8

    Re: of which provide mechanical interlocking and toughening at critical strains

    Piscean's "the series" refers to "a series of interdigitated sutures".

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    #9

    Re: of which provide mechanical interlocking and toughening at critical strains

    Let's divide it into two:

    1. We highlight a series of interdigitated sutures.
    2. The ellipsoidal geometry and laminated microstructure of the series of interdigitated sutures provide mechanical interlocking and toughening at critical strains.

    Do they make sense to you?
    (I understand the construction, but I'm not really sure what they mean.)

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    #10

    Re: of which provide mechanical interlocking and toughening at critical strains

    Now it is crystal clear.

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