First of all, figure of speech is language used in a figurative or nonliteral sense. Having said that, even native speakers would feel awe seeing how many different categories there are. Here's a list from Webster's:
(I don't agree with all the following items; IMO, some should not be categorized as figures of speech)
However, with the term "figure of speech" we usually refer to allegory, hyperbole, irony, metaphor and simile.
- tertium comparationis
- tmesis (and dystmesis)
allegory=An expressive style that uses fictional characters and events to describe some subject by suggestive resemblances; an extended metaphor.
irony=Incongruity between what might be expected and what actually occurs
metaphor=an expression used to refer to something that it does not literally denote in order to suggest a similarity.
simile=A figure of speech that expresses a resemblance between things of different kinds (usually formed with `like' or `as').
Asad khan baloochGuest