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    • Join Date: Dec 2005
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    #1

    Smile meaning

    After a few months the pencil case tore too. By then I could sew, and.... What is the meaning of "by then"?
    Thanks

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    #2

    Re: meaning

    = by that time, so ealrier she hadn't known how to sew, but at the time she needed to now, she did.


    • Join Date: May 2006
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    #3

    Re: meaning

    Hi, Daisy,
    By then means by that time; perhaps the child was old enough and had learned to sew.
    Cheers

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    #4

    Re: meaning

    Quote Originally Posted by Tdol View Post
    ...ealrier she hadn't known...
    The past perfect is quite confusing for me. I was expecting the simple past. When someone now [knows/has known?] something that he previously [didn't?/doesn't?], he wouldn't say "Now I have known.", he would just say "Now I have known.", is that right?

  1. RonBee's Avatar
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    #5

    Re: meaning

    Quote Originally Posted by dihen View Post
    The past perfect is quite confusing for me. I was expecting the simple past. When someone now [knows/has known?] something that he previously [didn't?/doesn't?], he wouldn't say "Now I have known.", he would just say "Now I have known.", is that right?
    No. When someone knows something that he previously didn't know he should say now I know.

    ~R


    • Join Date: Mar 2006
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    #6

    Re: meaning

    Quote Originally Posted by dihen View Post
    The past perfect is quite confusing for me. I was expecting the simple past. When someone now [knows/has known?] something that he previously [didn't?/doesn't?], he wouldn't say "Now I have known.", he would just say "Now I have known.", is that right?
    "When someone now knows something that he previously didn't, he would say 'Now I know'."

    "When someone has now learnt something that he previously hadn't (learnt), he would say 'Now I have learnt'."

    Focus on the key tense words 'now' and 'previously' - they denote 'present' and 'past' respectively. In the first sentence though, the verb describes a state - so it takes present simple tense and past imperfect tense respectively. In the second sentence, the verb is a continuing action - so it takes present perfect (completed now) and past perfect (completed in the past).

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