1. Chattel is an old legal term for portable property (not real estate). When we treat people as chattel it means we are treating them as objects or things, and not as people.
2. Taxpayer subsidies are taxes that have been collected from taxpayers and then diverted from ordinary expenses (police, fire fighters, road maintenance, etc.) into supporting entities (like hospitals) that should be self-sufficient.
3. Yes, you're right.