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    #1

    without

    Dear teachers,

    I have two questions to ask:

    No.1
    An effective way to promote self-confidence in children is _____ to do things for themselves.
    a. encouraging them b. to encourage them
    The key is 'a'. My question is why isn't 'b' correct.

    No.2
    When we speak of a basic human need we mena something which is neccessary to life, something we cannot possibly do _____.
    a. without it b. without
    The key is 'b'. Is it an adverb? And does it mean it already contains the meaning 'something'? Can I choose 'a'?

    Looking forward to hearing from you.
    Thank you in advance.

    Jiang
    Last edited by jiang; 24-Mar-2007 at 08:33.

  1. Casiopea's Avatar

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    #2

    Re: without

    Encouraging them is actualized, whereas to encourage them is unactualized. Now, given the sentence is about effective ways of promoting self-confidence in children, one would have to know that encouragement works in order to say it's an effective method. In other words, encouraging children has been tested before.

    Without is a preposition in form, and it already has an object, topicalized something. That's why choice a. without it doesn't work.

    Without functions as an adverb.

    All the best.

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    #3

    Re: without

    Dear Cas,
    Thank you very much for your explanation. I understand your explanation to No.1 but I don't understand your explanation to No.2. I thought 'something' is the object of 'do'. Could you please tell me where I was wrong?

    Looking forward to hearing from you.
    Thank you in advance.

    Jiang
    Quote Originally Posted by Casiopea View Post
    Encouraging them is actualized, whereas to encourage them is unactualized. Now, given the sentence is about effective ways of promoting self-confidence in children, one would have to know that encouragement works in order to say it's an effective method. In other words, encouraging children has been tested before.

    Without is a preposition in form, and it already has an object, topicalized something. That's why choice a. without it doesn't work.

    Without functions as an adverb.

    All the best.

  2. Casiopea's Avatar

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    #4

    Re: without

    No.2
    When we speak of a basic human need we mean something which is neccessary to life, something we cannot possibly do without.

    Do in that context is akin to exist; e.g., we cannot possibly exist without it or without doing it. The word something replaces it or doing it:

    We cannot possibly do without something =>
    Something we cannot possibly do without. <grammatical>


    Now, the following sentence holds a different meaning. Do means to do something:

    We cannot possibly do something without it =>
    Something we cannot possibly do without it. <ungrammatical>

    Does that help?

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    #5

    Re: without


    Dear Cas,
    Thank you very much for your explanation. Now I see.

    Jiang
    Quote Originally Posted by Casiopea View Post
    No.2
    When we speak of a basic human need we mean something which is neccessary to life, something we cannot possibly do without.

    Do in that context is akin to exist; e.g., we cannot possibly exist without it or without doing it. The word something replaces it or doing it:

    We cannot possibly do without something =>
    Something we cannot possibly do without. <grammatical>


    Now, the following sentence holds a different meaning. Do means to do something:

    We cannot possibly do something without it =>
    Something we cannot possibly do without it. <ungrammatical>

    Does that help?

  3. Casiopea's Avatar

    • Join Date: Sep 2003
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    #6

    Re: without

    You're most welcome.

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