I can't help with No.1.
How you will read depends on why you are reading and ________ [information] you need to remember.
a. how much
b. the amount <needs of; e.g., the amount of information>
And advertising is an ____ way of telling large numbers of people about new ideas.
a. efficient <It's quick>
b. effective <OK, but effective how?>
While it prolongs human life, in doing so it sometimes also ______
a. continue <continues? ; Continues doing what?>
It is, on a higher level, the same challenge health care workers always are faced.
Try, workers always face; workers are always faced with.
A new idear is first condemned as ridiculous, and then dismissed as trivial, _______ finally it becomes what everybody knows.
a. until <connects events in time: first, then, until finally>
b. and <connects events>
Student or Learner