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    #51
    I'm terribly sorry- I misread the sentence. I read 'last year', which is finished. 'In the last year' is different- it doesn't mean last calendar year, but as period of time equal to a year reaching up to now. My mistake.

  1. RonBee's Avatar
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    #52
    Past perfect:
    • As a young apprentice, Franklin had read a book extolling vegetarianism.

    • She had been taught badly.


    Present perfect:
    • Franklin, a young apprentice, has read a book extolling vegetarianism.

    • She has been taught badly.


    • Join Date: Apr 2004
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    #53
    "You have no idea how fun it is until you had one for a day." <--is this correct and what does it mean?
    "You have no idea how fun it is until you have one for a day." <--is this correct and what does it mean?

  2. MikeNewYork's Avatar
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    #54
    Quote Originally Posted by jack
    "You have no idea how fun it is until you had one for a day." <--is this correct and what does it mean?
    "You have no idea how fun it is until you have one for a day." <--is this correct and what does it mean?
    You have no idea how fun it is until you have had one for a day.

    You have no idea how fun it is until you have one for a day."

    The first means that you have had one in the past.
    The second means that have one in the present.

    Both are hypothetical. The speaker knows that the listener hasn't had one. :wink:


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    #55
    So, it doesn't matter which one I use?

  3. MikeNewYork's Avatar
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    #56
    Quote Originally Posted by jack
    So, it doesn't matter which one I use?
    In this context, I would say "no". :wink:


    • Join Date: Apr 2004
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    #57
    "You have no idea how fun it is until you have had one for a day. "

    Why do i need "have"? Why can't i just use had alone without "have"? Is it wrong if i don't use "have"? If it is why? If it does not, how would it change the meaning of the sentence?

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    #58
    It doesn't work because of the 'until'. Until+ past tense is used for something that actually happened. The speaker has, presumably, one, but the sentnce is addressed to someone who hasn't, which means the present perfect works better. After until, we use the present for things with a future meaning and this can include the present perfect, which is used to emphasise the completion.


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    #59
    "My mom has her own bike so I haven't had to take her for a ride." <--what does this sentence mean when i use "haven't had"? can i also use "haven't have" instead? if so, what would the sentence mean? If it is wrong to use "haven't have", why?

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    #60
    It means that until now it has not been necessary to give her a ride on his bike. 'Haven't have' is wrong because we use a past participle after the auxiliary verb 'have'.

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