Student or Learner
I have following difficult problem of grammar. Please explain which answer is right/wrong with some reasons.
It is argued that Einstein's contribution to physics was as important as [_____] ;
(c) of Newton
(d) that of Newton's
(e) that of Newton
Your prompt reply will be appreciated...
Hi, engee30 !
Many thanks for your propmt reply, and can I ask you any detailed reason for
your choice as [that of Newton's] ?
Hello, Bobk !!
Many thanks for your last pointing out.
I considered (d) [that of Newton's] as right answer with following reasons ;
1. Full sentence before abbreviation ; It is argued [Einstein's contribution to
physics] was as important as [Newton's contribution to physics] was important.
(I thought  should be compared with )
2. After 1st abbreviation ; It ~ that [Einstein's contribution to physics] was as
important as [Newton's contribution to physics].
3. After 2nd abbreviation ; It ~ that [Einstein's contribution to physics] was as
important as [Newton's [that] (=contribution)].
(['s=possesive case] is not suitable with [that=possesive pronoun])
4.Finally ; It is argued that Einstein's contribution to physics was as important
as [that of Newton's]...
Would hope to hear your bright explanation surely overnight,if possible.
Thanks in advance n b.rgds
Hello, BobK !!
In para.3 of my previous message [that=possessive pronoun] should be
read as [demonstrative pronoun].
Hello, BobK !!
Moreover, I have found following usages after the Google searching ;
1. Earlier laws of physics like [those] of Newton's were mere approximations
of these perfect laws.
2. But if KM was right with his analysis then I don't see why his analysis
couldn't stand as well as [that] of Newton's despite the fact that capitalism
(class society) will someday be 'just history'.
3. Frankly I do not know, though I think the effect will be as great as [that]
of Newton's work, which created most of the intellectual forces of the 18th
For some reason, I suppose, the writer of that question believes that either b or e is better; but I see no reason for choosing between them - except on grounds of the (silly, in my view) preference for 'elegant variation' - which would favour 'that of Newton' (because fans of elegant variation think it's a Good Thing to make readers work harder and parse equivalent structures rather than understand what they've read by reference to a structure they've already parsed ).
Test constructors these days are hung up on "parallel structure," the opposite of elegant variation.
The answer is b because the sentence compares Newton's to Einstein's [contributions].
Parallelism would require a "that of Newton" sentence to read like this:
It is argued that the contribution of Einstein to physics was as important as that of Newton.
Choices a, c, and d are patently ungrammatical, and the circumstance for using choice e is outlined above. Therefore, the answer is b, Newton's.
Hello, BobK and mykwyner !!
Many thanks for your explanation with note.
Now I feel I have escaped from the last headache !!! ...