What is the English term for, say, example, a digital watch appearing in medieval times?
Where something modern is taken out of context and placed into a different time frame.
It's one of those stupid words like "anthropomorphism" - (Using animals with human characteristics.)
This an anachronism.
From ancient Greek: 'chron' is a syllable referring to time (Kronos was the god of time) and gives us synchronise, chronic, synchronous, etc; 'a' or 'an' applies a negative to what follows. And in these examples, 'syn' means 'same'.
You can probably work out 'asynchronous'.