- Semantic markers. They indicate how ideas are being developed. Examples of these semantic markers include firstly, secondly, finally , etc.
- Markers for illustrations and examples such as, for instance, for example , etc.
- Markers that introduce an idea that runs against what has been said earlier: but, nevertheless, yet, although, by contrast , etc.
- Markers showing a cause and effect relationship between one idea and another. They include, so, therefore, because, since, thus, consequently .
- Markers that show the speaker's intention to sum up his message. Some of these phrases are to summarize, in other words, it amounts to , etc.
- Markers indicating the relative importance of different items, e.g., it is worth noting, it is important to note that, the next crucial point is , etc.
- Markers used to rephrase what has already been said. These are in other words, put differently, that is to say , etc.
- Markers that express a time relationship, e.g., then, next, after, while, when .... the meanings of lexical items and of the structures containing them are expressed using combinations of semantic markers which are “intended to reflect, in their formal structure, the structure of the concepts they represent.” (Katz, 1972: 101)
In programming,... semantic markers represent an attempt to encode a tiny fragment of pragmatics into syntax ... A Linguistics Oriented Programming Language