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  1. ptm

    Smile Having

    What is the meaning of having. I know have has etc. when it is ing form ?!

    for Eg. "After having defeated Louis prince he continued his ..."

    Now please help me, what is having means?


  2. Soup's Avatar
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    Re: Having

    When the subjects in both clauses are the same as in here,
    Clause 1
    After he had defeated Prince Louis,

    Clause 2
    he continued his ...
    the first subject is often omitted,
    Clause 1
    After ... had defeated Prince Louis, <omitted subject>

    Clause 2
    he continued his ...
    and its verb is made into a participle (a non-verb) because it lacks a subject,
    Clause 1
    After having defeated Prince Louis, <participle>

    Clause 2
    he continued his ...
    The structure changes, but the meaning stays the same:
    After he had defeated ...


    After having defeated ...


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