Many of the ALTs working in Japanese schools are actually unqualified people on exhanges; the idea being that the Japanese teacher does the teaching. In the eikaiwa, some offer their own training, others want a qualification and plenty seem to require little more of a native speaker than a jacket, tie and pulse. To work long-term in japan, the better jobs are in the universities, where an MA is required, though this can be done there from places like Temple University. However, the prospects in japan for ESL work look very poor at the moment. Nova, the largest eikaiwa chain, is teetering on the verge of bankrupcy, which means that thousands of teachers are likely to be dumped onto the market, which will drive salaries, which has been stuck for some time with the deflation, much further down.